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Full text of "Between Baltimore and Pittsburgh on trains nos. 5 and 6, "New York and Chicago limited" The most historical and picturesque railway in America"

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Chicago Limited. 







JULY, 1901. 







T is the purpose of this pamphlet to point 
out to the traveller the interesting features 
of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad seen 
from the Observation Car, running between 
Baltimore and Pittsburg, en route to and from 
New York and Chicago, on Trains Nos. 5 
and 6. 

Part of the road between Baltimore and 
Washington was the first railroad built in 
America. The line from Washington to Pitts- 
burg is along the old National Road, laid out 
by George Washington, Civil Engineer, in 
1753. The line between Cumberland and 
Pittsburg was the arena of the fourth and last 
French and Indian War. The entire line be- 
tween Washington and Pittsburg figured prom- 
inently in the Civil War, and is dotted with 
historical points. Not only is the Baltimore 
& Ohio the most historical road in America, 
but is the most picturesque route through 
the Alleghenies, and the scenery is unparal- 

The interest commences at the start. 

CAMDEN STATION, is one of the oldest 
Baltimore, Md. railway Stations in 

America. It figured prominently in the Civil 
War, and twice in its history it was in a state 
of siege and partially burned. The first time 
in 1861 during the riot on April 19, and the 
second time in 1878 in the great strike. 

RELAY, MD. i^,,^ ^f ^i^g fjj-st American rail- 

9 miles from Baltiinure. j t-» -i j 

333 n.iies from Pittsburg, road. Railroad crosses im- 
mense stone arch bridge over the Patapsco 
river. The oldest bridge of its kind in the 

ANNAPOLIS JCT., MD. Branch line to An- 

18 miles from Baltimore. ^ .-^ ^ ^:*„i ^c 

324 miles from Pittsburg. napOllS, Capital Of 

COLLEGE, MD. Maryland State Agricultural 

32 miles from Baltimore. y-> -.^ 

310 miles from Pittsburg. <^01lege. 

HYATTSVILLE, MD. pord across which 
(Biadensburg) gj,jjjgj^ charged in 

33 miles froui Baltiuiore. ^ 

309 miles from Pittsburg. 1814. Thc railway 

passing over ground where fighting was most 
severe. Nearby is the notorious dueling 
ground of Revolutionary times. 

WASHINGTON. D. C. Capital of the United 

40 miles from Baltimore. o, .„„ tu^ ^^.^^^ 

302 miles from Pittsburg. btatCS. 1 he dOmCS 

of the Capitol and Library Building are seen to 
the left, and the Washington Monument to the 
right of the train. 

ROCKVILLE, MD. County-seat of Montgom- 

56 miles from Baltimore. ^^ ^ n« i j 

286 miles from Pittsburg. cry County, Maryland. 
One of the oldest towns in the State. 

DICKERSON, MD. Crossing famous Monoc- 

76 miles from lialtiinore. . i • i 

269 miles from Pittsburir. HCy rtVCF, WhlCH CniptlCS 

into the Potomac to the southward. Beautiful 
landscape scenery. 

TUSCARORA, MD. Tuscarora creek empty- 

79 miles from l?altimore. . • , ^i r-. ^ 

26:^ miles from I'ittsln.rg. Hlg lUtO thC PotOmaC tO 

the southward. 

WASHINGTON JCT., MD. Junction of old 

83 miles from Ballimore. n/i • i • j 
259 miles from Pittsburg. MaiU LUie and 

Frederick Branch. Through trains formerly 
left Washington Junction direct to Baltimore 
via old line, but now all through trains run via 
Washington. Fourteen miles north, on Fred- 
erick Branch, is Frederick, of "Barbara 
Fritchie" fame, near which place the battle of 
Monocacy was fought between Generals Lew 
Wallace and Jubal Early. 

POINT OF ROCKS, MD. The beautiful Poto- 

84 miles from Baltimore. • , 

258 miles from pittsi.urjj. mac rivcr bcgins 

its companionship with the railway, which con- 
tinues for one hundred and fifty miles. One 
of the most picturesque sections of Maryland. 
The Chesapeake & Ohio Canal parallels the 
railway to the left, with the Potomac river skirt- 
ing the canal. The elevation to the mountain 
region commences at this point, and first views 
of the mountains are obtained. During the Civil 
War this section of the country was contin- 
uously occupied by both armies, which crossed 
and recrossed the Potomac at this point, occa- 
sioning many skirmishes. 

BRUNSWICK, MD. Terminals and railroad 
253;"iI::I^Zp;;'s,';:;;^- yards of Baltimore & 

Ohio Railroad. It was here that General 
Meade's army recrossed the Potomac on their 
return from the battle of Gettysburg to Wash- 

WEVERTON, MD. Junction of Hagerstown 

92 miles from Ballimoie. i> _ „ », „ i. D« l*.:^,, ^..o. S, 

250 n.iles from Pittsburg. B T 3 U C ll , BaltmiOrC & 

Ohio Railroad. It is here that General Burn- 
side, with his command, crossed the railroad 
en route to Washington from the battle of An- 
tietam. Famous bass fishing grounds of the 

HARPER'S FERRY, W.VA. The most pic- 

2i1 mi'les from Pittsburg; tUrCSqUe, bCaU- 

tiful, and historical spot in America. Ap- 
proaching the town from the east the train 
passes through a tunnel cut through the 
base of Maryland Heights, crosses the steel 
bridge over the Potomac, and stops at the 
station and John Brown's Monument. To the 
left is the Shenandoah river, emptying into the 
Potomac. Across the Shenandoah is the big 
mountain known as Louden Heights, on the 
Virginia side. Back of the town to the west- 
ward is Bolivar Heights. Back of the little 
Catholic church on the hill is Jefferson's Rock, 
from which the grandest scene of mountain, 
river and valley can be obtained. It was 
named after Thomas Jefferson, who said the 
view was "worthy a trip across the Atlantic." 
At Harper's Ferry the Civil War had its birth. 
John Brown, of Ossawatomie, with his hand- 
ful of brave but fanatical followers, shed the 

first blood; and the monument to him, a 
simple shaft, stands on the spot where his im- 
provised "fort" stood forty years ago. The 
story of the invasion of Harper's Ferry is told 
by the Government tablets alongside of the 
monument. The batteries of both armies were 
lined up on the tops of the different mountains, 
pouring shot and shell into and across the little 
village. The old U. S. Arsenal, of which 
nothing can be seen but the old foundation, 
was located below the present railway track to 
the right, along the Potomac. The battle of 
Antietam was fought ten miles from Harper's 
Ferry, at Sharpsburg. 

From Harper's Ferry the Valley Branch of 
the B. & O. leaves Main Line to Staunton and 
Lexington, Va. 

SHENANDOAH JCT., W. VA. Junction of 

103 miles from Baltimore. tvt c ii o 

•239 miles from I'ittshurij. iNOrrOlK & 

Western Ry. Many skirmishes of the Civil 
War took place at this point. 

DUFFIELDS, W. VA. General Darke, of Rev- 

105 miles from Baltimore. ... « 

237 miles from pittsi.urjr. olutiouary f a m C , IS 

buried a short distance west of station. 

KEARNEYSVILLE, W. VA. Famous during 

107 miles from Baltimore. ^, r> i ^• 

235 miles from PittsluirK. thC ReVOlUtlOU- 

ary War. The homes of Generals Gates and 
Charles Lee of the Revolution are still stand- 
ing. General Robt. E. Lee and command 
passed through on way to Antietam. Stage to 

MARTINSBURG, W. VA. This historic city 

114 miles from Baltimore. i j • 

228 miles from Pittsburg. played 30 import- 

ant part in the Civil War. It was here the 
wholesale destruction of railroad property of 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad by Stonewall 
Jackson took place. His army carried away 
eight B. & O. engines, hauling them by men 
and horses thirty miles, to be placed on 
Southern roads and used by his army. 

NORTH MOUNTAIN, W.VA. The site of 

121 miles from Baltimore. ,, r> i^i e 

221 miles from Pittslnirg. tCC tJattlC Ot 

North Mountain, between General Averill and 
a portion of General Lee's forces, one mile 
south of track at town of Hedgesville. The 
mountain in full view to the left. Delightful 
hotel accommodations. 

CHERRY RUN, W. VA. Junction of Western 

135 miles from Baltimore. >« , j r-w -i j 

207 miles from Pittsburg. Maryland Railroad. 

Ruins of Fort Frederick on north side of 

HANCOCK, W. VA. Junction of Berkeley 

136 miles from Baltimore. o • r> i. t> i. 

206 miles from Pittsburg. Spnugs Branch. The 

station is in West Virginia, but the town is 
across the river in Maryland, A long sweep 
of the Old National Road can be seen. Berk- 
eley Springs, a famous summer resort, is a 
few miles to the south. 

SIR JOHN'S RUN, W.VA. This town was 

141 miles from Baltimore. o j j i 

201 miles from Pittsburg. rOUndCd 1 O n g 

before the Revolution. So named because it 
was once the headquarters of Sir John Sin- 
clair, who was General Braddock's Quarter- 
master. Here also was built the first steam- 

boat by Ramsay that was run on the Potomac. 
It was formerly the old stage station to Berk- 
eley Springs. 

GREAT CACAPON, W. VA. Excellent hunt- 

145 miles from Raltiinore. . j c> u • 

197 miles fron, PittsburK'. ingand fishlttg. 

Club house in view to the north across the 
Potomac. One of Ex-President Cleveland's 
favorite fishing resorts. 

MAGNOLIA, W. VA. Good hunting and fish- 

162 miles from Baltimore. . .-^, ,-,, , 

ISO miles frr.m Pittsburg. lug. Thc Chcsapcake 

& Ohio Canal passes through tunnel in moun- 
tain short distance to north. Said to be the 
best mason work in the country. 

PAW PAW, W. VA. Troops located here dur- 

167 miles from lialtimore. . ,. y-^- ., ..r, »-. i i 

175 miles from Pittsburg. lUg thC ClVll War. BlOCk 

house was captured by Captain Height, Con- 
federate, of Imboden's command. General 
Sanders, of Union Army, died here. 

GREEN SPRING, W. VA. Junction of Rom- 

177 miles from Baltimore. »-> u e n 

165 miles from Pittsburg. UCy BraUCh 0\ B. 

& O. Generals McCausland and Johnson re- 
crossed the Potomac from Pennsylvania and 
Maryland into West Virginia, after burning 
Chambersburg, Pa., and captured a company 
of Ohio soldiers, who were in block house, 
the old foundations of whieh are standing. 
This is one of the most famous fishing resorts 
in the mountains. 


184 miles from Baltimore. y-. , . 

158 miles from Pittsburg. ^O 1 O n C I 

Richard Ashby was killed in the Civil War in 
hand-to-hand fight with Corporal David Hays, 
of Indiana. 

CUMBERLAND, MD. Elevation 1,000 feet 

192 miles from Haldinore. , i i /-> 

150 miles from pittsin,rt.r. abovc SCR level. Cum- 

berland, with a population of 18,000, is the 
second city of the State and the largest city in 
the mountains. It is devoted principally to 
manufacturing and coal mining. It is the 
western terminus of the Chesapeake & Ohio 
Canal. The site of Fort Cumberland, where 
General Braddock and George Washington 
made their headquarters during the French 
and Indian War, on a bluff at the junction of 
Wills creek with the Potomac river (the Indian 
Cohongoronta river), is now occupied by the 
Episcopal church, an exceptionally picturesque 
stone structure on the south side of Washing- 
ton street, and directly fronting Baltimore 

Leaving Cumberland the railway follows 
Wills creek, which flows through a natural 
pass in Wills mountain, called "The Nar- 
rows." On either side of the narrow pass the 
mountain sides are steep and precipitous. 

Thackeray in the "Virginians," at the close 
of the 52d chapter, describing the return of 
George Washington, says : 

*'So we passed over the two ranges of the 
Laurel Hills and the Alleghenies. The last 
day's march of my trusty guide and myself 
took us down that wild, magnificent pass of 
Wills creek, a valley lying between cliffs near 
a thousand feet high, bold, white, and broken 
into towers like huge fortifications, with eagles 
wheeling around the summits of the rocks and 
watching their nests among the crags." 

The great stone bridge, which is seen to the 

left, at the eastern entrance of the gorge, is 
the old National Bridge of the Cumberland or 
National Road, built by the Government dur- 
ing the "Twenties" through the influence of 
Henry Clay and other Western statesmen of 
the "Public Improvement" school of politics. 

The bed of the railroad had to be cut through 
solid rock in many places. Going west, Behr's 
Heights is on the right and Mount Nebo on 
the left. Wills creek, flowing between this 
range of mountains, known as Wills Moun- 
tain, takes its name from an old Shawnee 
Chief, Will, and extends from twelve miles 
west of Cumberland to the Juniata river, north 
of Bedford, Pa., with but this one complete 

The almost perpendicular side of Behr's 
Heights is known as "Lover's Leap," and a 
legend exists that an Indian maiden cast her- 
self from its summit to the rocks below in her 
grief at her lover's death. Two miles further 
west to the right is seen "Devil's Backbone," 
a narrow ledge of rock imbedded in the moun- 
tain, whose peculiar shape gives it its name. 

The railway west of Cumberland is along the 
route originally selected by George Washing- 
ton as the best avenue for commerce to Pitts- 
burg, which is said to have been founded by 
him in 1753. 

In the next thirty miles the railway passes 
consecutively through the towns of Cook's 
Mills, Hyndman, Fairhope, Foley, Glencoe and 
Philson ; all in Pennsylvania. The towns are 
devoted to brick and flour industries. The 
scenery is inexpressibly grand on both sides 

of the track. The railway follows the Potomac 
river for sixty-five miles. 

BOWMAN, PA. This town was established by 

222 miles from Baltimore. <. ., n .1 

120 miles from pittsimrg. a family of thc samc name 
in the latter part of the last century. At this 
point is the famous horse-shoe curve of the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. The heel prints 
of the horse shoe are not more than two hun- 
dred yards apart. 

SAND PATCH, PA. Elevation 2,286 feet. 

225 miles from Baltimore. f> i t-> , i 

117 miles from Pittslnirg. Saud PatCh WaS SO 

named because early in the century two broth- 
ers, named Gibber, quarreled, and one was 
fatally shot by the other. The tragedy occur- 
red near a large deposit of sand, and was re- 
ferred to by witnesses during the trial as the 
"sand patch." When the railroad was built 
the name was given to the tunnel, and later to 
the station. At this point is the Atlantic- 
Mississippi watershed. Here the railroad at- 
tains the greatest altitude on this division. 
The summit of the mountain over the tunnel 
is 2,467 feet above tidewater. 

KEYSTONE, PA. Keystone was formerly the 

227 miles from Baltimore. • ,. p 

115 miles fron. Pittsburg. juuctiou of a uarrow-gaugc 
railroad, which conveyed the product of the 
Keystone Coal Company to this point for trans- 
fer to the B. & O. Fine fire-brick works, the 
property of the Savage Fire-Brick Company, 
are located here. 

MEYERSDALE. PA. Founded at the close of 

229 miles from Baltimore. au t> i i* wr 

113 miles from Pittsburg. the Rcvolutionary War 

by Jacob Meyers, who owned large tracts of 

land at this place. The old mill built by him 
being in a good state of preservation, and is 
still used for its original purpose. 

Meyersdale is also the metropolis of Somer- 
set county, and the largest town between Con- 
nellsville and Cumberland. It is the centre of 
the Meyersdale coal region, which extends 
from here for a dozen miles up the Cassell- 
man river. Large quantities of coal and coke, 
both of excellent quality, are shipped from 
here, the most going to Baltimore. This is 
the fuel used by the B. & O. Royal Blue trains 
between Washington and New York, insuring 
absolute freedom from smoke and cinders. 
Mining and manufacturing are the principal 
SALISBURY JCT., PA. Junction of Main 

•230 miles from Baltimore. t • nf R /^ O nnH 

112 miles from Pittsburg. LinC Of tS. K U. aUQ 

Salisbury Branch. From this point to Conflu- 
ence the B. &0. follows the Cassellman river, 
so named after Heinrick Cassellman, a Ger- 
man trader, who had a stockade on the banks 
of the river immediately below this place. The 
bluff or elevation on the opposite side of the 
river was in early times an Indian burying 
ground, the whole expanse being covered with 
graves of Indians. Said to be the oldest set- 
tlement in Western Pennsylvania. 

GARRETT, PA. Garrett was named after 

•238 miles from Baltimore. ]^u„ VV/ HarrPtf former 

108 miles from Pittsburg. JOnU W. ^jarrCll, lOIIUCl 

President of the B. & O., and is the junction 
point with the Berlin Branch. About one and 
a half miles below Garrett the railroad skirts 
Negro mountain. 

ROCKWOOD, PA. Junction of Main Line and 

227 iiiilesf rum Halliiiiure. o ^ o /^ l • -r-k 

101 miles frumPittsiung. Somcrset & Cambria R. 
R., which passes through the famous Scalp 
Level Timber country and gives B. & O. en- 
trance into Johnstown. 

CASSELLMAN, PA. This place is named for 

245 miles from Baltimore. ^i, /^ ii 

97 miles from pittsinirjr. thc Cassellmau river, 

which, at this point, is of surpassing beauty, 
rivaling that of the famous Shenandoah. 

MARKLETON, PA. The famous Markleton 

248 miles from Hnltiiiiore. o -^ • 

94 miles from pittsiiur^. Sanitarmm, an institu- 

tion which has acquired great prominence as a 
health resort, is located here. 

FORT HILL, PA. A few miles below Pinker- 

251 miles from Haltimore. , j • c ii • c 

91 miles from Pittsburg'. tOU, and m full VlCW Of 

passing trains, is Fort Hill, a high hill covered 
with earthworks, erected during the French 
and Indian War. The Fort, which measures 
ten acres in enclosure, is perfect in every way, 
the entry being visible from the cars. The en- 
closure is as level as a floor, and all banks, 
floor, etc., are covered with luxuriant sod. 
When discovered, though all the surroundings 
were primeval forest, not a tree was within or 
on any part of the enclosure of this fort. The 
work is ascribed to Mound Builders, but as yet 
no investigations have been made. 

CONFLUENCE, PA. So named being the 

257 miles from Baltimore. ri n . • 

85 miles from Pittsburg. COnflUCnCC Of thrCC 

Streams: the Cassellman, Laurel Hill Creek, 
and Youghiogheny. The township was named 
Turkey Foot by General George Washington 
during Braddock's march to Fort Duquesne, 

the old Braddock road being less than five 
miles from this point. Called Turkey Foot be- 
cause the confluence is formed in the shape of 
a turkey foot. A trading post was established 
here at the beginning of the eighteenth century, 
and nearby was one of the earliest settlements 
in Western Pennsylvania. 

OHIO PYLE, PA. Youghiogheny river. Beau- 
'Tslnil'^onllSu"^" tiful sccucry, wild and 
mountainous. Favorite mountain resort of 
Pittsburg. Fort Necessity, three miles away, 
where Washington surrendered to the French, 
July 4th, 1754. Cucumber Falls. First bat- 
tle of the French and Indian Seven Years' War. 

INDIAN CREEK, PA. Magnificent mountain 

•277 miles from Baltimore. cpf^nprv One of the 

65 miles from Pittsburg. SCCUCry. WUC OF TIlC 

most celebrated views of the Alleghenies. Fine 
bass fishing, 

CONNELLSVILLE, PA. Greatest coke region 

'tl mll^: ^m pS:;^- in the world. _ Coke 

ovens appearing on both sides of the railway. 

BROADFORD, PA. Coke ovens and the old 

^87 miles from Baltimore 
55 miles from Pittsburg 

287 miles from Baltimore. ^^^ far-faUlCd OvCrholt 


McKEESPORT, PA. Confluence of Youghio- 
'^^milSl^ompiSr^- ghcuy and Mononga- 

hela rivers. Important manufacturing centre. 
Here are the largest tube works in the world. 
Bessemer Steel Works, Armor Piercing Pro- 
jectile Works, etc. 

BRADDOCK, PA. ^^^^^ after General Brad- 

333 miles from Baltimore. j i t_ i •«! j i 

10 miles from Pittsburg. dock, who WES killed hcrc 
in the French and Indian War at the end of 
the fatal sixty days' march of Washington and 
Braddock from Cumberland in July, 1755. 
Braddock's grave near the old National Road. 
Near here are the great Edgar Thompson Rail 
Mills of the Carnegie Steel Company. 

PITTSBURG, PA. Founded by George Wash- 

342 miles from Baltimore. ington in 1753. Captured 
by the French and called Fort Duquesne, re- 
captured by the British and called Fort Pitt, 
after the distinguished statesman ; afterwards 
called Pittsburg. Centre of the great iron in- 
dustries of the United States. 

^ ^